JAMES SHERR is Associate Fellow (and former Head) of the Russia and Eurasia Programme at Chatham House and was a member of the Social Studies Faculty of Oxford University until 2012. In 1999–2000 he was an adviser to the House of Commons Defence Committee and between 1983–85 Director of Studies of the Royal United Services Institute. For twenty years, he has advised governments in the UK, NATO, the EU about developments in Russia and Ukraine and for a number of years worked closely with Ukraine on defence and security sector reform. He is a regular participant in the Harvard JFK School Black Sea and Russia Security programmes and is a member of the Valdai Club. He is the author of Hard Diplomacy and Soft Coercion: Russia’s Influence Abroad (Chatham House, 2013). Other publications include Ukraine and Europe: Final Decision? (2013), The Mortgaging of Ukraine’s Independence (Chatham House 2010), Russia and the West: A Reassessment (UK Defence Academy 2008), “Hard Power in the Black Sea region: A Dreaded but Crippled Instrument” (2011) and “The Russia-EU Energy Relationship: Getting it Right” (2010).